"There are no secrets of Japanese management, however: it is even doubtful whether there is such a thing as management, in the American sense, in Japan at all.
The secret is in Japanese society; and if any group in society should be singled out as carriers of the secret, it is the workers, not the managers"
University of Limburg,
Maastricht, the Netherlands
Source: Cultural constraints in management theories
Academy of Management Executive, 1993
Volume, 7, Number 1